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Compulsory: Prognostic Modelling (PM)
Identification number


180 h
Term of studying
1st or 2nd semester
Frequency of

Winter term

1 semester
1 Type of lessons
a) Lectures
b) Tutorials
Contact times
30 h
30 h
Self-study times
60 h
60 h
Intended group size

Aims of the module and acquired skills

Aims: Understanding of prognostic numerical formulation of meteorological and geophysical problems, overview of numerical procedures and their properties and knowledge of model capabilities, limitations and model results interpretations. Acquired skills: skillful applications of meteorological and geophysical models, critical judgment of model simulations and capacity of model development.


Contents of the module

  • Concepts and framework of meteorological and geophysical prognostic modeling
  • Numerical methods for ordinary and partial differential equations
  • Numerical methods used in meteorological, geophysical and space-plasma prognostic models
  • Initial and boundary conditions
  • Examples of meteorological (e.g. COSMO, ICON), geophysical and space-plasma models
4 Teaching/Learning methods

Lectures and tutorials. Compulsory attendance in tutorials.
5 Requirements for participation

Formal: None.

The content of the course, however, requires the undergraduate knowledge of geophysical fluids, linear algebra and basic skills in programming with Matlab, Fortran, C/C++ or similar.

Type of module examinations

Written Examination (graded)

7 Requisites for the allocation of credits

Regular attendance in tutorials, successful completion of at least 50 % of the assigned homework and passing a final examination.

At the end of the semester or the beginning of the following semester a possibility to repeat the examination is offered. A failed examination may be repeated twice. Additional possibilities to repeat an examination exist according to the examination regulations (§ 20 section 1).

Assessments which have been passed are not allowed to be taken again, with one exception: If at the end of a module which consists of a lecture and tutorial classes, the student takes the assessment at the first available date after having received admission to the module exam, he/she is then allowed to take the examination again at the next available date for the purpose of improving the grade, even if he/she passed the assessment the first time – in this case, the better of the two grades will count towards the final degree grade (§ 20 section 9).

The module mark is the grade obtained in the assessment. In the case of two passed assessments the module mark is the better grade.
8 Compatibility with other Curricula

9 Significance of the module mark for the overall grade

10 Module coordinator

Y. Shao, R. Neggers
11 Additional information

Recommended Literature:

Haltiner, J. and R.T. Williams, 1980: Numerical Prediction and Dynamic Meteorology, John Wiley & Sons Inc.
Coiffier, J., 2009: Fundamentals of Numerical Weather Prediction, Cambridge University Press.
Krishnamurti, T.N., H.S. Bedi, V.M. Hardiker and L. Ramaswamy, 2006: An Introduction to Global Spectral Modelling, Springer-Verlag
Ames, W.F., 1977: Numerical methods for partial differential equations, Academic Press.
Fletcher, C. A. J., 1991: Computational Techniques for Fluid Dynamics, Springer-Verlag.
Hoffmann, J. D., 2001: Numerical Methods for Engineers and Scientists.
Shearer, P., 2009: Introduction to Seismology, Cambridge University Press.
Büchner et al., 2003: Space Plasma Simulation (Lecture Notes in Physics), Springer-Verlag.